【英中同传】231、如何释放创造力?

Cora CI会议口译 2019-07-08

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先观看英文视频,可脑记复述、笔记交传或进行同传。翻成中文后可参考Cora的笔记与中文音频。听不懂的部分,可查看词汇与讲解。非口译专业者,可用作精听练习素材。中文音频为同传而非交传,同传练习建议一次完成,交传练习建议分四次完成。

难度:medium

欢迎大家在留言区给出自己认为的难度。

时长:17'07"
词汇

smackdown, empirical, counterintuitive, ubiquitous, clamber, Archimedes, cross-training, ophthalmology, intimidate, pen, stasis, miraculous, staggering, diagram, choreographer, synergy, botany, earthworm, transmutation, taxonomy, barnacles, poker, bassoon, fast-twitch, hermit

讲解
  • attribute to:认为(评论、文章或艺术品)出自...

  • Brownian motion:布朗运动,指微小粒子表现出的无规则运动。一个微粒的运动没有规律,一个分子的运动也没有规律,但是由此引申出来的分子自由扩散问题证明,分子的宏观浓度分布是时间和位置的函数,这就是爱因斯坦于1905年发表的著名的扩散方程。人们还将布朗运动的数学定律与股票价格行为联系在一起,这是一项具有重要意义的金融创新,在现代金融数学中占有重要地位。

    Brownian motion of the particle

  • special relativity:狭义相对。相对论是爱因斯坦对牛顿力学体系的一个修正,是关于时空和引力的理论。其中狭义相对论只在惯性系中有效,它考虑的是平直时空的问题,不涉及引力。相对应的广义相对论是general relativity。

  • photoelectric effect:光电效应。是指光束照射在金属表面使其发射出电子的物理效应。发射出来的电子称为“光电子”。德国物理学家赫兹于1887年发现光电效应,爱因斯坦是成功解释光电效应的第一人。

    Photoelectric Effect

  • one of a kind:独一无二的,独特的

  • Linus Pauling:莱纳斯·鲍林,美国著名化学家,量子化学和结构生物学的先驱者之一。1954年因在化学键方面的工作取得诺贝尔化学奖,1962年因反对核弹在地面测试的行动获得诺贝尔和平奖,成为获得不同诺贝尔奖项的两人之一。


    Linus Pauling

  • Richard Feynman:理查德·费曼,美国物理学家,被认为是爱因斯坦之后最睿智的理论物理学家,也是第一位提出纳米概念的人。

    Richard Feynman

  • skill set:技能组合

  • be in progress:正在进行,尚未完工

  • think outside the box:跳出固有的思维模式,打破常规

  • eureka moment:尤里卡时刻,即灵光乍现,豁然开朗,顿悟。据说阿基米德泡澡时突然想到测量皇冠体积的方法,惊喜地大喊"Eureka",因此人们把灵光乍现的某一时刻叫做“尤里卡时刻”。也可以通俗点说lightbulb moment。

  • wrestle with:努力解决(某一难题)

  • in a flash:一瞬间,一下子

  • control group:对照组

  • Michael Crichton:迈克尔·克莱顿,美国著名畅销书作家、影视导演、制片人。迈克尔·克莱顿曾在哈佛大学文学系就读,后转读人类学系,之后又开始攻读医学,1969年获得哈佛大学医学博士学位。他在读医期间就已经开始文学创作并发表作品。《侏罗纪公园》(Jurassic Park)和《急诊室故事》(E.R.)都是他的代表作。

    Michael Crichton

  • crossword puzzle:拼单词游戏

  • cell culture:细胞培养,指在培养皿中让细胞生存、生长、繁殖并维持主要结构和功能,也叫细胞克隆技术。

  • get the ball rolling:着手做,开始做

  • survival of the fittest:物竞天择

  • sit on:拖延,压着事情不做,原文指现在很少有人能像达尔文一样一件事做44年。

错误
  • 录音有两处1秒的跳跃,不影响理解。

  • 例子中涉及具体生平和研究,不熟悉的地方进行了模糊处理。

笔记

前4分半示范,具体区间已在讲稿中用分割线标注。

讲稿

"To do two things at once is to do neither." It's a great smackdown of multitasking, isn't it, often attributed to the Roman writer Publilius Syrus, although you know how these things are, he probably never said it. What I'm interested in, though, is -- is it true? I mean, it's obviously true for emailing at the dinner table or texting while driving or possibly for live tweeting at TED Talk, as well. But I'd like to argue that for an important kind of activity, doing two things at once -- or three or even four -- is exactly what we should be aiming for.

Look no further than Albert Einstein. In 1905, he published four remarkable scientific papers. One of them was on Brownian motion, it provided empirical evidence that atoms exist, and it laid out the basic mathematics behind most of financial economics. Another one was on the theory of special relativity. Another one was on the photoelectric effect, that's why solar panels work, it's a nice one. Gave him the Nobel prize for that one. And the fourth introduced an equation you might have heard of: E equals mc squared. So, tell me again how you shouldn't do several things at once.

Now, obviously, working simultaneously on Brownian motion, special relativity and the photoelectric effect -- it's not exactly the same kind of multitasking as Snapchatting while you're watching "Westworld." Very different. And Einstein, yeah, well, Einstein's -- he's Einstein, he's one of a kind, he's unique. But the pattern of behavior that Einstein was demonstrating, that's not unique at all. It's very common among highly creative people, both artists and scientists, and I'd like to give it a name: slow-motion multitasking.

Slow-motion multitasking feels like a counterintuitive idea. What I'm describing here is having multiple projects on the go at the same time, and you move backwards and forwards between topics as the mood takes you, or as the situation demands. But the reason it seems counterintuitive is because we're used to lapsing into multitasking out of desperation. We're in a hurry, we want to do everything at once. If we were willing to slow multitasking down, we might find that it works quite brilliantly. Sixty years ago, a young psychologist by the name of Bernice Eiduson began a long research project into the personalities and the working habits of 40 leading scientists. Einstein was already dead, but four of her subjects won Nobel prizes, including Linus Pauling and Richard Feynman. The research went on for decades, in fact, it continued even after professor Eiduson herself had died. And one of the questions that it answered was, "How is it that some scientists are able to go on producing important work right through their lives?" What is it about these people? Is it their personality, is it their skill set, their daily routines, what?

Well, a pattern that emerged was clear, and I think to some people surprising. The top scientists kept changing the subject. They would shift topics repeatedly during their first 100 published research papers. Do you want to guess how often? Three times? Five times? No. On average, the most enduringly creative scientists switched topics 43 times in their first 100 research papers. Seems that the secret to creativity is multitasking in slow-motion. Eiduson's research suggests we need to reclaim multitasking and remind ourselves how powerful it can be. And she's not the only person to have found this. Different researchers, using different methods to study different highly creative people have found that very often they have multiple projects in progress at the same time, and they're also far more likely than most of us to have serious hobbies. Slow-motion multitasking among creative people is ubiquitous. So, why?

I think there are three reasons. And the first is the simplest. Creativity often comes when you take an idea from its original context and you move it somewhere else. It's easier to think outside the box if you spend your time clambering from one box into another. For an example of this, consider the original eureka moment. Archimedes -- he's wrestling with a difficult problem. And he realizes, in a flash, he can solve it, using the displacement of water. And if you believe the story, this idea comes to him as he's taking a bath, lowering himself in, and he's watching the water level rise and fall. And if solving a problem while having a bath isn't multitasking, I don't know what is.

The second reason that multitasking can work is that learning to do one thing well can often help you do something else. Any athlete can tell you about the benefits of cross-training. It's possible to cross-train your mind, too. A few years ago, researchers took 18 randomly chosen medical students and they enrolled them in a course at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, where they learned to criticize and analyze works of visual art. And at the end of the course, these students were compared with a control group of their fellow medical students. And the ones who had taken the art course had become substantially better at performing tasks such as diagnosing diseases of the eye by analyzing photographs. They'd become better eye doctors. So if we want to become better at what we do, maybe we should spend some time doing something else, even if the two fields appear to be as completely distinct as ophthalmology and the history of art.

And if you'd like an example of this, should we go for a less intimidating example than Einstein? OK. Michael Crichton, creator of "Jurassic Park" and "E.R." So in the 1970s, he originally trained as a doctor, but then he wrote novels and he directed the original "Westworld" movie. But also, and this is less well-known, he also wrote nonfiction books, about art, about medicine, about computer programming. So in 1995, he enjoyed the fruits of all this variety by penning the world's most commercially successful book. And the world's most commercially successful TV series. And the world's most commercially successful movie. In 1996, he did it all over again.

There's a third reason why slow-motion multitasking can help us solve problems. It can provide assistance when we're stuck. This can't happen in an instant. So, imagine that feeling of working on a crossword puzzle and you can't figure out the answer, and the reason you can't is because the wrong answer is stuck in your head. It's very easy -- just go and do something else. You know, switch topics, switch context, you'll forget the wrong answer and that gives the right answer space to pop into the front of your mind.

But on the slower time scale that interests me, being stuck is a much more serious thing. You get turned down for funding. Your cell cultures won't grow, your rockets keep crashing. Nobody wants to publish you fantasy novel about a school for wizards. Cora: 哈利波特梗 Or maybe you just can't find the solution to the problem that you're working on. And being stuck like that means stasis, stress, possibly even depression. But if you have another exciting, challenging project to work on, being stuck on one is just an opportunity to do something else.

We could all get stuck sometimes, even Albert Einstein. Ten years after the original, miraculous year that I described, Einstein was putting together the pieces of his theory of general relativity, his greatest achievement. And he was exhausted. And so he turned to an easier problem. He proposed the stimulated emission of radiation. Which, as you may know, is the SER in laser. Cora: laser是缩写,全称为light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation,爱因斯坦研究的是stimulated emission of radiation,首字母缩写为SER,即laser中的后三个字母。 So he's laying down the theoretical foundation for the laser beam, and then, while he's doing that, he moves back to general relativity, and he's refreshed. He sees what the theory implies -- that the universe isn't static. It's expanding. It's an idea so staggering, Einstein can't bring himself to believe it for years. Look, if you get stuck and you get the ball rolling on laser beams, you're in pretty good shape.

(Laughter)

So, that's the case for slow-motion multitasking. And I'm not promising that it's going to turn you into Einstein. I'm not even promising it's going to turn you into Michael Crichton. But it is a powerful way to organize our creative lives.

But there's a problem. How do we stop all of these projects becoming completely overwhelming? How do we keep all these ideas straight in our minds? Well, here's a simple solution, a practical solution from the great American choreographer, Twyla Tharp. Over the last few decades, she's blurred boundaries, mixed genres, won prizes, danced to the music of everybody, from Philip Glass to Billy Joel. She's written three books. I mean, she's a slow-motion multitasker, of course she is. She says, "You have to be all things. Why exclude? You have to be everything." And Tharp's method for preventing all of these different projects from becoming overwhelming is a simple one. She gives each project a big cardboard box, writes the name of the project on the side of the box. And into it, she tosses DVDs and books, magazine cuttings, theater programs, physical objects, really anything that's provided a source of creative inspiration. And she writes, "The box means I never have to worry about forgetting. One of the biggest fears for a creative person is that some brilliant idea will get lost because you didn't write it down and put it in a safe place. I don't worry about that. Because I know where to find it. It's all in the box." You can manage many ideas like this, either in physical boxes or in their digital equivalents.

So, I would like to urge you to embrace the art of slow-motion multitasking. Not because you're in a hurry, but because you're in no hurry at all.

And I want to give you one final example, my favorite example. Charles Darwin. A man whose slow-burning multitasking is so staggering, I need a diagram to explain it all to you.

We know what Darwin was doing at different times, because the creativity researchers Howard Gruber and Sara Davis have analyzed his diaries and his notebooks. So, when he left school, age of 18, he was initially interested in two fields, zoology and geology. Pretty soon, he signed up to be the onboard naturalist on the "Beagle." This is the ship that eventually took five years to sail all the way around the southern oceans of the Earth, stopping at the Galápagos, passing through the Indian ocean. While he was on the "Beagle," he began researching coral reefs. This is a great synergy between his two interests in zoology and geology, and it starts to get him thinking about slow processes. But when he gets back from the voyage, his interests start to expand even further: psychology, botany; for the rest of his life, he's moving backwards and forwards between these different fields. He never quite abandons any of them.

In 1837, he begins work on two very interesting projects. One of them: earthworms. The other, a little notebook which he titles "The transmutation of species." Then, Darwin starts studying my field, economics. He reads a book by the economist Thomas Malthus. And he has his eureka moment. In a flash, he realizes how species could emerge and evolve slowly, through this process of the survival of the fittest. It all comes to him, he writes it all down, every single important element of the theory of evolution, in that notebook.

But then, a new project. His son William is born. Well, there's a natural experiment right there, you get to observe the development of a human infant. So immediately, Darwin starts making notes. Now, of course, he's still working on the theory of evolution and the development of the human infant. But during all of this, he realizes he doesn't really know enough about taxonomy. So he starts studying that. And in the end, he spends eight years becoming the world's leading expert on barnacles.

Then, "Natural Selection." A book that he's to continue working on for his entire life, he never finishes it. "Origin of Species" is finally published 20 years after Darwin set out all the basic elements. Then, the "Descent of Man," controversial book. And then, the book about the development of the human infant. The one that was inspired when he could see his son, William, crawling on the sitting room floor in front of him. When the book was published, William was 37 years old. And all this time, Darwin's working on earthworms. He fills his billiard room with earthworms in pots, with glass covers. He shines lights on them,to see if they'll respond. He holds a hot poker next to them, to see if they move away. He chews tobacco and --

(Blows)

He blows on the earthworms to see if they have a sense of smell. He even plays the bassoon at the earthworms.

I like to think of this greatman when he's tired, he's stressed, he's anxious about the reception of his book "The Descent of Man." You or I might log into Facebook or turn on the television. Darwin would go into the billiard room to relax by studying the earthworms intensely. And that's why it's appropriate that one of his last great works is the "Formation of Vegetable Mould Through The Action of Worms."

(Laughter)

He worked upon that book for 44 years. We don't live in the 19th century anymore. I don't think any of us could sit on our creative or scientific projects for 44 years. But we do have something to learn from the great slow-motion multitaskers. From Einstein and Darwin to Michael Crichton and Twyla Tharp. The modern world seems to present us with a choice. If we're not going to fast-twitch from browser window to browser window, we have to live like a hermit, focus on one thing to the exclusion of everything else. I think that's a false dilemma. We can make multitasking work for us, unleashing our natural creativity. We just need to slow it down.

So...Make a list of your projects. Put down your phone. Pick up a couple of cardboard boxes. And get to work.

Thank you very much.

(Applause) 

长文链接

【CI毕业考】两年厚积,三天薄发(上)

【CI毕业考】两年厚积,三天薄发(下)

【CI中期考】淘汰制,是否如传说般可怕?

【CI入学考】中国最难口译入学考

【Cora】我的口语学习经历(一年级)

【Cora】和大家说一点心里话

【Q&A;】第一波粉丝十问解答

【Q&A;】第二波粉丝十问解答



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